|Abstract||This study reports on preliminary findings of habitat-contingent temporal variability in ant assemblages in Purnululu National Park in northern Australia's semiarid tropics, by sampling at the end of the dry season (October 2004) and the end of the wet season (April 2005). Six grids of 15 pitfall traps were established in each of the spinifex, sandplain and gorge habitats. Community composition was dominated by behaviourally dominant ants (Iridomyrmex spp.) and climate specialists (Melophorus and Meranoplus spp.). Ant activity was higher in the wet season sampling period, with greater species richness and abundance. Interestingly, temporal variation in ant assemblage richness, abundance and composition varied markedly with habitat type. While there were large differences between sampling periods for the spinifex and sandplain habitat, this was not the case in the gorges. These temporal changes in ant assemblages are postulated to be linked with major environmental differences between the two sampling periods, driven by seasonal climatic conditions. It is likely that these changes influenced the ant assemblages through species differences in physiological tolerance levels, ecological requirements and competitive ability. This study demonstrates the need, in highly seasonal environments, to consider the temporal context of studies in relation to habitat type, particularly when undertaking biodiversity surveys and monitoring.